More important, the participants could see themselves magnified as a collective body both on and off screen; they were now visibly a part of a historic movement they could visualize and identify with. The staging did not in fact change what happened. They were voting with their feet, as the saying goes. Political participation begins to take other, more affective, forms. The occupation was both an embodied claim to inclusion and the performance of belonging, of establishing a different "city" that people would occupy and control for over 50 days.
Representatives from all around Mexico lived in the make-shift tents installed along several miles of the protest route. Gender roles underwent change as men cooked and cleaned and new forms of collaboration came into being. These daily acts reaffirm the private publics of capitalism with its privatization of public space. My bubble world allows me to lock out all and everyone else. A different notion of politics was not only envisioned but enacted.
The misfire worked to question the authority of the 'official' decision. The scenario offered another framework for envisioning a way forward by calling attention to the sham and imagining alternative, plausible futures. In Mexico, this means imagining the political as a space of convergence and potentiality rather than as we know it to be a done-deal, brokered behind closed doors by those in control. I asked Jesusa what, from her experience as a cabaret artist, had prepared her for this task of choreographing an entire political movement.
Judging from her response, cabaret might indeed be essential training for politics. Her body became central to the performance with advantages and draw-backs that we will see later. The improvisational nature of her work in Cabaret, where she constantly pulled topical issues and figures into a loosely structured art piece, had trained her to stay on her feet and respond creatively to what was going on around her.
Affect, as Teresa Brennan reminds us, circulates among and between us; we as individuals are not self contained Brennan , Presence of mind is equally important as she weighed various options. A good imagination and a sense of humor are key, not only to performance and cabaret but to envisioning a better world. While performance is always in the now, it also has an eye to the future. The politics of passion, and the scenarios of a more equitable society that these sometimes give rise to, can prove politically efficacious. Stephan in Why Civil Resistance Works , note the success of non-violent overthrow of regimes in Serbia , Madagascar , Georgia , Ukraine , Lebanon as well as the ongoing uprisings in the Middle East.
What does failure mean, in a case such as this one? On a simple level, the protests failed to reach their objective of forcing a total recount. The power brokers managed to resist the demand for clarification. Bush presidency, was marred by the cloud of illegitimacy. A couple of months after the contested elections, many of those who voted for AMLO said that if the elections were held again, they would not vote for him.
They were put off by all the acting out. But perhaps more serious, the rejection of AMLO following the election seemed to be a rejection of the performance of a more equitable society. Did the white students, artists, and intellectuals abandon the struggle? Or did they feel that the largely mestizo social movement did not represent them?
Even a cursory look at the faces associated with the Mexican student movement, YoSoy, shows a very different constituency in terms of age, class, and race. Animatives terrify governments whose main goal is to control bodies through the mobilization or threat of force, or the use of performative edicts, decrees, and official utterances with the force of law. They also challenge on-lookers who respond differently to spectacles of defiance and resistance.
Who controls the action? For better and for worse, animatives lack the legitimating structures, authority, and hierarchies that empower performatives. The same thing happened in Occupy Wall Street. One of the first articles about the movement to appear in The New York Times was accompanied by a photograph of two young men. One, a nicely dressed Latino in a suit and tie, was depicted as hard working. The other, a disheveled white man, looked like a lazy slacker.
Others, who feel things should just be handed to them on silver platters, just sit around and complain. Economic inequalities? Power brokers and media commentators conjured up scenarios of moral panic and approaching economic disaster. The people in the tents, many of them of indigenous and mestizo racial origins, triggered a deep-seated fear and racism. And here they were, his followers sleeping on the streets! Franco ,7 So who controls whom?
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Does agency and action stem form the bodies on the street or from brokers off to the side? And who is watching? Who witnesses the battle of presentation and representation to decide whether to join to protest or turn off the T.
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Political spectatorship, then, is a force to be reckoned with. Theorists from at least as far back as Plato to the present have recognized that there is a power and politics to seeing, although few might agree on what those politics might be. Aristotle, in Poetics , affirmed the pedagogical power of representation, but argued to keep violence offstage for ethical reasons, not necessarily because spectators should not see it i. Aristophanes in The Frogs pointed out that spectators were sometimes the object of political machination, rather than simply learning from it. So what constitutes political spectatorship?
It is for her to act. It is for you to judge. The problems of hegemonic spectatorship are more accentuated in the realm of political performance, where people feel even less implicated in the ideological construction of the event and even more empowered to demand explanation. The onus is on the protests, not the hegemonic spectator, to create meaning. Others, such as Brazilian theatre practitioner and theorist Augusto Boal, also refuse the equation of seeing with passivity so often assigned to spectatorship.
Image theatre, legislative theatre, newspaper theatre, invisible theatre among other forms he developed taught participants to see critically, and reflect, act, and intervene on what they saw. He too understands that seeing is a doing, just as not-seeing is the act of not doing. Both are acts. Part of the paradox of spectatorship, I believe, stems from the fact that most theorizations about active or passive viewing stems from theatre, as my examples so far illustrate.
Theatre, from the Greek thea meaning "a view," was the place for seeing. Spectator comes from the same word, theates. Theory does too. The etymology suggests that from its linguistic origins, the person spectator , the act the see , and critical inquiry to theorize were inseparable. Nonetheless, centuries of training spectators to sit still in their seats and follow theatrical conventions has produced not only the idea of the passive spectator but too often, perhaps, the passive spectators themselves. But there is nothing inherently passive about spectatorship, even when we confine our analysis to the theatrical.
Political performances make dissent visible. Protests, acts of civil disobedience, strikes, marches, vigils, and blockades challenge the spectator to assess the situation, think critically, and maybe even take sides. What are these protests about? Anti-hegemonic spectators will get informed. This is a far more intense visual field than that described by Sartre or even Lacan.
We see political performers, performing politicians, performers as politicians, and the performance of political office, as cameras zoom in on flags, military attire, national colors, presidential podiums, sashes, and seals. Algorithms process which Internet sites to make available to whom. Participants can also be "there"through streaming video or chats. At conventions and rallies, those who are physically present often watch the events on the giant screens projecting the speakers. The "live" participants serve as an enthusiastic background for the other show taking place offstage, in the virtual public arena.
Performance efficacy is measured, not by the reaction of viewers in the room, but by daily polls. These stagings complicate whatever we might say about spectatorship in current protests. They also pose age-old questions about perspective, embodiment, and location long associated with studies of vision, but with a fascinating twist. Does the dominance of technological mediation signal the failure of the "live" and "seeing" as a means of knowing? There are many ways of participating, many ways of being there, though not all feel as powerful and immediate and experientially vibrant as some protesters feel about embodied practice.
Los Angeles , California, U. Geoffrey Loftus m. Main article: Misinformation effect. Main article: Jane Doe case.
Archived from the original on May 20, Retrieved November 18, American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved Tracking the birth of a star. Hayne Eds. In-Sight 2.
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A : 24— Misinformation effects and the suggestibility of eyewitness memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Bibcode : PNAS.. Psychology Today. In Garry M; Hayne H eds. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. The Orange County Register. Loftus: The early years". Leak Case".
The New York Times. Associated Press. Skeptical Inquirer. American Psychologist. Archived from the original PDF on LA Weekly. NZ Skeptics. Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 11 November Cyberstalking: harassment in the Internet age and how to protect your family. New York: Praeger Publishers. Child Maltreatment. Archived from the original on Loftus , 3d 54 , Cal. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice.
Loftus faculty page". University of California, Irvine. Association for Psychological Science. In this exposition we feel the possibilities and limits of an intercultural, interlingual and interdisciplinary artistic collaboration. We discuss the possibility of intercultural and interlingual performance in the context of artistic research, reflecting on our performances in the light of postcolonial research, Indigenous studies and performance studies.keycelruiwithsmast.ml
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Our research questions in the context of this issue How to do things with performance art? How does knowledge transmission and translation take place in this performative network-building process? The teachers present and contextualize the knowledge we have recorded with them in a fieldwork situation. As artist-researchers, we construct an event in which this kind of knowledge presentation is possible and translate the verbal communication into other languages in collaboration with the performers.
We present here  some introductory notes from the intersection of Indigenous studies and artistic research, based on our attempts to follow Indigenous methodologies see for example Kovach ; Smith ; Virtanen et al. Indigenous studies engage with the life of Indigenous peoples  by analysing Indigenous politics, history, culture, sciences, etc.
Indigenous methodologies highlight Indigenous self-determination and they emphasize reciprocity, dialogue, connectivity, collaboration, relationality, ethical reflection and sensitivity for Indigenous values and needs Nakata , Chilisa , Marie Battiste , cited in Virtanen et al. We also refer to writings of the interdisciplinary fields of performance studies, postcolonial and decolonial research. All these research areas are relatively recent in academia. They are not fixed but rather flexible areas, in many cases composed of supra-disciplinary or extra-academic  alliances beween specialists in- and outside academia, and they suggest new ways of arranging and classifying knowledge.
As artist-researchers, we find important reasons to engage ourselves with Indigenous communities and Indigenous methodologies.
diana taylor false identifications essay
This has pushed us into an ongoing process of learning and reconsideration of our positioning and intentions. We strive to choose our methodologies carefully and care for the commitments our research processes lead to. The fact that among the Wixaritari there are devoted artists and other cultural specialists but fewer scholars in the fields of art and culture emphasized this need.
Photo: Pyry-Pekka Kantonen. When we start a research process in a community, we recognize that we are engaging in a long reciprocal relationship . We need to give back the research results in a language that the community can understand. We recognize the partners that have helped and supported us in different ways during the research time. As artists and researchers, we have not been educated in this kind of reciprocity, and we have a lot to learn and unlearn Guttorm et al. She suggests indigenizing academia Kuokkanen , For obvious historical reasons, there has been a tension between researchers and decolonial Indigenous movements.
Extraction leads to ownership and, in the wrong hands, slides in the impersonation and appropriation. Phillip Deloria , cit. Teves , Researchers have rarely returned to the communities after publishing their writings, and even if they have, they have usually only given back writings in a language that the people in the community cannot read Leyva , Practicing fieldwork in their own communities and institution-criticism in institutions, such as universities and museums, indigenous scholars have modified the idea of fieldwork.
Questions of reflection, commitment and responsibility have been manifested in a new light as the scholars have carried out fieldwork in their own communities. In one case she composed a protective frame around a photograph taken of her aunt, in other case she fabricated colourful belts around photograph albums. Heith ; Pirak Sikku There is also a need for non-Indigenous researches to do their homework and study the colonial baggage of their own institutions in order to understand their own possible biases and intentions. The reading of performance studies texts has offered us a critical and theoretical perspective on how to interpret our fieldwork results.
We noted with satisfaction that postcolonial points of view have been discussed in performance studies see, for example, McKenzie ; McKenzie, Roms and Wee ; Arlander ; Teves , especially after the PSi annual conference in the Cook Islands in The status of English as the predominant language of scholarship and the prevalent Western academic norms have been questioned McKenzie He asks:. What are the methodological implications of thinking about fieldwork as the collaborative performance of an enabling fiction between observer and observed, knower and known? How does thinking about fieldwork as performance differ from thinking about fieldwork as the collection of data?
What kinds of knowledge are privileged or displaced when performed experience becomes a way of knowing, a method of critical inquiry, a mode of understanding? What are the differences between reading an analysis of fieldwork data, and hearing the voices from the field interpretively filtered through the voice of the researcher? For the listening audience of peers? For the performing ethnographer? For the people whose lived experience is the subject matter of ethnography? What about enabling the people themselves to perform their own experience? Conquergood , These words of Conquergood articulate the questions we had been asking ourselves during the performance workshops we have conducted.
We had carried out fieldwork, collected interview data and observed pedagogic and ritual performances in the communities. The teachers had themselves chosen the issues to be presented. Some questions still remained: Who would choose the language s of the performance? If we were to explain the context only in the colonial languages of Spanish or English, we would reproduce the authoritative voice of generic ethnographic cinema. The Mexican-American performance theorist Diana Taylor in her seminal article The Archive and the Repertoire — Performing Cultural Memory in the Americas draws attention to the fact that performance as an art form privileges forms of knowledge that are non-text-based and takes them seriously as practices and cultural expressions.
It mediates knowledge in a non-written form. She claims that performance art can be a very powerful tool in remembering and re-vitalizing Indigenous knowledge. She plays with the idea that one of the concepts of Indigenous art forms; for example, for the Arawak the concept of areito singing-dancing , could be used instead of performance :.
Visor de obras.
This term is attractive because it blurs all Aristotelian notions of discretely developed genres, publics, and ends. It calls into question our taxonomies, even as it points to new interpretive possibilities. Taylor , Taylor recognizes that intercultural art translation always complicates things, while at the same time it opens new possibilities.
The Indigenous studies scholar Helen Verran recommends that the friction created by translation efforts should be discussed in its full complexity instead of simplifying things by inventing soothing metaphors Verran Kantonen , L.
Kantonen The weaker groups do not have the words to express their feeling of injustice in the language of the stronger groups. Today, the differend still exists, yet with Isabelle Stengers , we recognize the practices of our collaborators by their strength rather than by their weakness or suppressed status.
Indigenous peoples have demonstrated a strong resilience in a variety of circumstances, and they have knowledge about their environments. Indigenous languages have unique value. The Kanaka Maoli Native Hawaiian Indigenous studies and performance studies scholar Stephanie Nohelani Teves discusses Indigenous performances from a decolonizing point of view.
She reminds us that settler colonialism has naturalized certain colonial performances that aim at the assimilation of Indigenous peoples. Indigenous performances, too, can be performed in a way that does not respect Indigenous struggles for sovereignty: for example, they are often performed in the context of the tourist industry in such a way that they seem to be mere spectacle, stripped of their relational contexts and their political and spiritual significances.
Indigenous scholars of performance studies tend to regard Indigenous performances as theory challenging prevailing academic underpinnings, rather than objects to be analyzed Teves , According to Teves, many Indigenous performers and scholars do not feel comfortable with the poststructural theories and concepts used in performance studies.
One of the biggest reasons Native studies is resistant to Performance studies is the relationship Performance studies has to poststructuralism. Poststructurialism debunks binary oppositions and any fundamental stability underlying such signs in general, including the supposedly stable and essential content of identity and subjectivity. What happens to the Indigenous identity if, as poststructuralists say, origins do not exist?
This would obviously have alarming consequences for Indigenous peoples whose origins are on the land and who often base their cultural resilience on their ability to survive amidst multiple efforts to exterminate, remove, and assimilate them. Theorizing non origins has contributed to the erasure of indigeneity and its lived consequences. Teves , — Indigenous performance studies scholars claim that their performances participate in real land-based relational networks between humans, ancestors and their ancestral land even when presented in non-traditional contexts.
Teves herself, however, is ready to critically consider and accept some poststructural frameworks into the discussions of Indigenous studies. There are other Indigenous scholars who are more inspired by poststructural theories. For her, writing is multiple and multivocal, it partipates in the word-making, always entangled with time, space, and materia Guttorm In an article titled Encountering Deleuze: Collaborative Writing and the Politics of Stuttering in Emergent Language , she, together with various writers, experiments with collective multilingual creation, which is always imperfect and in the process of becoming.
Our generation of artist-researchers has largely been educated and produced as such by poststructural theory. We have been encouraged to doubt and deconstruct almost anything. However, when collaborating with Indigenous performers we do not feel it right to question their practices of performing but we rather doubt our own capacity of understanding and translating those practices. We feel a responsibility when framing performative co-existence as performance art, negotiating inclusions and exclusions, translating and presenting them in the context of art. Boaventura Souza Santos writes that it is not possible to have economic and political equality without epistemological equality, and if we deal with Indigenous ontologies and epistemologies equally, we should take them seriously.
He writes in favor of pluralistic thinking, which means for him that it is possible to participate in two or more epistemological systems at the same time Santos Scientific knowledges and indigenous knowledges are needed for different purposes, for example, indigenous knowledge is important for understanding the biodiversities of a jungle Santos When an Indigenous shaman has been educated at university, he or she does not forget the knowledge he or she has learned as a shaman.
The everyday language is spoken at home, in bilingual schools, at informal gatherings and at the political gatherings of the agricultural authorities. The ceremonies connect arts that in the Western art world would be called poetry, singing, dancing, visual arts, food installations, architecture, and more see, for example Lumholtz ; Neurath The sacred places are regarded as living beings and activated by ritual hunts and pilgrimages preceding or following the ceremonies.
In this way, the ritual community renews its right to use its ancestral land Liffman , passim. Photo: Pekka Kantonen. There are also university-educated lawyers and teachers, but fewer scholars in the fields of art and culture. We asked the teachers what kind of knowledge needed to be included in the video. A video of this material was then edited, and the first version of the performance was planned with Heriberto. The video recordings of these performances and the written backup translations of the speech in them comprise the data for this study.
For every performance, a new, updated version of the video is filmed together with the chosen performer, and new video editions and translations are made accordingly. Every artist-teacher brings his or her special knowledge both to the performance and to the video: for example, the music teacher plays his violin and the craft teacher weaves. No final video product is completed, so every edition is shown just once or twice. They also appreciate the opportunity to learn the new medium of performance art, and the possibilities it gives them for traveling and networking.
However, they see the performance as a foreign art form, outside of their immediate cultural context. Their professional and ritual activities allow only limited time for the preparation, rehearsals and evaluation of the performance. For example, one of the performers canceled her participation in a performance tour when it overlapped with her ritual obligation in the Tatei neixa ceremony, the ceremony of first fruits.
As previously mentioned, the teachers were experienced translators, but they were not used to the standard Western way of translating in public situations. Each performed their translation in their own way. Some performers unexpectedly gave longer and more thorough explanations than the original speakers and also explained the context of the situation, so it was necessary to pause the video until they were finished. Pausing and accelerating the videos — leaving space for improvisation — was also part of the tentative aesthetics.